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<appendix id="gfdl">
  <title>GNU Free Documentation License</title>

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    <title>GNU Free Documentation License</title -->
  <para>Version 1.1, March 2000</para>

    <para>Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place,
    Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and
    distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is
    not allowed.</para>

  <section label="0" id="gfdl-0">

    <para>The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
    written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
    effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying
    it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License
    preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their
    work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by

    <para>This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
    works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
    complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license
    designed for free software.</para>

    <para>We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
    free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
    program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
    software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
    can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether
    it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally
    for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.</para>

  <section label="1" id="gfdl-1">
    <title>Applicability and Definition</title>

    <para>This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
    notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under
    the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such
    manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed
    as "you".</para>

    <para>A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
    Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
    modifications and/or translated into another language.</para>

    <para>A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
    of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
    publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
    (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
    within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a
    textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
    mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection
    with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
    philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.</para>

    <para>The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
    titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
    notice that says that the Document is released under this License.</para>

    <para>The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
    listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says
    that the Document is released under this License.</para>

    <para>A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
    represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
    public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
    straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
    pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
    drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for
    automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
    formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose
    markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification
    by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called

    <para>Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
    ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or
    XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML
    designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF,
    proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word
    processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not
    generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word
    processors for output purposes only.</para>

    <para>The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
    plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
    this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats
    which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text
    near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the
    beginning of the body of the text.</para>

  <section label="2" id="gfdl-2">
    <title>Verbatim Copying</title>

    <para>You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
    commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
    copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to
    the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
    conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical
    measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the
    copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in
    exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies
    you must also follow the conditions in section 3.</para>

    <para>You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
    and you may publicly display copies.</para>

  <section label="3" id="gfdl-3">
    <title>Copying in Quantity</title>

    <para>If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than
    100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
    enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these
    Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts
    on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you
    as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full
    title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may
    add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes
    limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document
    and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other

    <para>If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
    legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably)
    on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.</para>

    <para>If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
    numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
    Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each
    Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a
    complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which
    the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
    charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter
    option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
    distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
    Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until
    at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy
    (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the

    <para>It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
    the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
    give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the

  <section label="4" id="gfdl-4">

    <para>You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
    under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
    the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
    Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and
    modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it.
    In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:</para>

    <orderedlist numeration="upperalpha">
        <para>Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
        distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
        versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History
        section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous
        version if the original publisher of that version gives

        <para>List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
        entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
        Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal
        authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less
        than five).</para>

        <para>State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
        Modified Version, as the publisher.</para>

        <para>Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.</para>

        <para>Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
        adjacent to the other copyright notices.</para>

        <para>Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
        notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under
        the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum

        <para>Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
        Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license

        <para>Include an unaltered copy of this License.</para>

        <para>Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add
        to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
        publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
        there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one
        stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
        given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
        Version as stated in the previous sentence.</para>

        <para>Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
        for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
        the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it
        was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may
        omit a network location for a work that was published at least four
        years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the
        version it refers to gives permission.</para>

        <para>In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
        preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
        substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
        dedications given therein.</para>

        <para>Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
        in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent
        are not considered part of the section titles.</para>

        <para>Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may
        not be included in the Modified Version.</para>

        <para>Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to
        conflict in title with any Invariant Section.</para>

    <para>If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
    appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
    copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of
    these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of
    Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles
    must be distinct from any other section titles.</para>

    <para>You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
    nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for
    example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by
    an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.</para>

    <para>You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
    and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the
    list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
    Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through
    arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a
    cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement
    made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add
    another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the
    previous publisher that added the old one.</para>

    <para>The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
    License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert
    or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.</para>

  <section label="5" id="gfdl-5">
    <title>Combining Documents</title>

    <para>You may combine the Document with other documents released under
    this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
    versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
    Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list
    them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license

    <para>The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
    multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy.
    If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different
    contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end
    of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of
    that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment
    to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license
    notice of the combined work.</para>

    <para>In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled
    "History" in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
    "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and
    any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
    entitled "Endorsements."</para>

  <section label="6" id="gfdl-6">
    <title>Collections of Documents</title>

    <para>You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
    documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies
    of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is
    included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this
    License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other

    <para>You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
    distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy
    of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in
    all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.</para>

  <section label="7" id="gfdl-7">
    <title>Aggregation with Independent Works</title>

    <para>A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
    separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a
    storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified
    Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for
    the compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this
    License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
    with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are
    not themselves derivative works of the Document.</para>

    <para>If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
    copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of
    the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers
    that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must
    appear on covers around the whole aggregate.</para>

  <section label="8" id="gfdl-8">

    <para>Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
    distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
    Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
    permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations
    of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of
    these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License
    provided that you also include the original English version of this
    License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the
    original English version of this License, the original English version
    will prevail.</para>

  <section label="9" id="gfdl-9">

    <para>You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
    except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
    copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
    automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties
    who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not
    have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full

  <section label="10" id="gfdl-10">
    <title>Future Revisions of this License</title>

    <para>The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
    the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
    will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
    detail to address new problems or concerns. See 
    <ulink url="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/"/>.</para>

    <para>Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
    number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of
    this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
    following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of
    any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free
    Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of
    this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft)
    by the Free Software Foundation.</para>

  <section label="" id="gfdl-howto">
    <title>How to use this License for your documents</title>

    <para>To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy
    of the License in the document and put the following copyright and
    license notices just after the title page:</para>

      <para>Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy,
      distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free
      Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by
      the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST
      THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the
      Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license is included in the
      section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".</para>

    <para>If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant
    Sections" instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no
    Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover
    Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.</para>

    <para>If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
    recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
    software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their
    use in free software.</para>

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